chapter  3
Visible Traces and Traces within Traces
Pages 39

This chapter shows how the translator succeeds in creating a text that is as linguistically layered as the original, or, in other words, that neither neutralizes the hybridity of the original nor displaces the hybridity into paratextual material. Tina Steiner's study outlines the translation techniques used to render the mixing of English and Shona that is key to the original, both in terms of its language and in terms of its paratext. The failure of translations into Estonian to conform to Even-Zohar's model suggests that the model might usefully be revised to account explicitly for the role played by language policies, particularly in the context of the perceived 'threat' of linguistic globalization. Many of the relexifications can be replicated by identifying the grammatical or morphological process used in the original innovation and applying it to the target language. Many of the onomastic devices used by the corpus authors pose relatively little difficulty for translators seeking to replicate the authors' innovations.