Rationality in Organizational Design Before discussing in detail the variety of
organizational possibilities, however, they need a setting. Pfeffer , introducing his study, says, "A critical dimension distinguishing among theories of organizations is the perspective on action adopted, either explicitly or implicitly, by each theory. The three perspectives seen in the literature are: action seen as purposive, boundedly or intendedly rational, and prospective or goal directed; action seen as externally constrained or situationally determined;
and action seen as being somewhat more random and dependent on an emergent, unfolding process, with rationality in the second and third perspectives being constructed after the fact to make sense of behaviours that have already occurred."