Pages 6

There is no need for a large programme of research to establish the plainly observable fact that there exists a great variety of organizational forms by which the marketing function in modern industry and commerce is executed. Planning decisions of roughly identical type, for instance, may be made by individuals or by groups; at the top of an organization or lower down; in divisions or centrally; by a variety of marketing specialists or even by executives who are not labelled marketing managers at all. Sometimes indeed they may be made by people who strictly speaking do not even belong to the formal organization. Of the groups of people concerned, they may be large or small; permanent or ad hoc ; representative of one specialism or many; heavily proscribed or free; formal or informal and working at one hierarchical level or many.