This introduction presents an overview of key concepts covered in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book forwards an approach to language and translation teaching that is framed within the ecological perspective on language education and is informed by convergent and interrelated principles elaborated in second language education and translation studies respectively. The proposed pedagogy is intended particularly for the graduate and undergraduate language classroom and, place equal emphasis on theory and practice; it is illustrated by sample activities undertaken in real-life educational contexts. Translation proved to be beneficial in the monolingual as in the multilingual class and at pre-intermediate, intermediate and advanced levels of linguistic competence. It targets at prospective and practising language and translation educators in modern languages degree programmes as well as teacher trainers and researchers in second language teaching and translation pedagogy.