Peer review is a method used in many fi elds. It happens as a matter of course when institutions seek external guidance about their own expertise from outside experts or consultants. In academia, peer review is the predominant process by which research is judged. Material is sent to relevant outside experts and is judged in relation to its contribution to the best current understandings in the fi eld. It is a formalization of the basis by which the modern natural and social sciences have modifi ed, built on and revolutionized knowledge. In this way, notwithstanding the hubris of modern epistemology, peer review can be positively revolutionary.