The failures of Oslo and Camp David spawned one of the most difficult and violent periods in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: the second Intifada and Israeli military retaliation accompanied by reoccupation of areas in the West Bank. For the Israeli leadership, the major challenge was the violence of the Intifada and the domestic pressure that it created for some kind of government action, beyond the use of military force. Public and official acknowledgement of agreement to a Palestinian state was conspicuously absent from previous Israeli government positions, including, that of Yitzhak Rabin. The major factor that led Olmert subsequently to abandon unilateralism was the Second Lebanon War in the summer of 2006. Olmert invited Abu Mazen to his official residence, and, after a number of postponements by Abu Mazen, the first meeting took place on 23 December 2006 amidst an unusual Israeli display of formal recognition, including Palestinian flags.