chapter  17
Institutional and economic factors
Pages 35

Previous chapters may have been given the impression that innovation and application depend only on science and engineering. However, such an opinion is extremely naïve; practical developments depend about 75% on ‘institutional factors’ and only about 25% on science and engineering. The ‘institutional factors’ are driven by politicians, planners, financiers, lawyers, social scientists, the media, the public and, because of ethical, religious and cultural values, artists, authors, theologians and philosophers. Scientists and engineers become more influential when they participate in these other areas.