chapter  17
Pages 21

The main public order offences are now contained in the Public Order Act 1986 as amended by the Crime and Courts Act 2013, though there are other offences, for example wearing a uniform for a political purpose under the Public Order Act 1936, and aggravated trespass under s 68 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994. The Public Order Act 1986 abolished the old common law offences of riot, rout, unlawful assembly and affray and created three new offences in their place. These are riot, violent disorder and affray. The law has been made more coherent, with common themes of using or threatening unlawful violence, and conduct which would cause a person of reasonable firmness present at the scene to fear for his personal safety. Although these offences are aimed at maintaining public order, the Act states that all three offences can be committed in private as well as in a public place.