chapter  7
Pages 20

In modern society, the protection of race within the international human rights regime, the regional provisions and domestic legislation has imposed criminal and civil legal sanctions on acts of racism or racial abuse. In contrast to the criminal law approach to racial abuse, the civil law approach draws upon equality legislation. In the context of race, it is often the culture of sport which clashes and tends to lead to an imbalance between inclusion and exclusion. This chapter explains the limits to regulatory mechanisms in changing cultures and attitudes. It explores the instances when human differences based upon evolutionary adaptation and culture can present challenges to the traditional sporting culture and at times the rules of sport. Finally, the chapter presents case studies of Black Athletes, South Asian athletes, sport and religion, and English-only speaking rules.