Reproductive policies that have been in place in China since the 1980s were based on the realities of national conditions at the time. Since then, China’s demographic situation has undergone profound changes and has now taken on clear indications of a ‘new stage.’ Certain demographic indicators are showing signs of being at a turning point. The orientation of population growth in the future will be determined by major choices taken now. The time is ripe for adjusting the country’s reproductive policies – this chapter explores how to do that. It emphasizes the following considerations: the already existing partial adjustments, population prospects under different scenarios, principles behind the concept of adjusting the policy, steps that might be taken, and supporting measures that will be needed.