Starting in 2017, China’s labor supply is going to begin a gradual decline. Increasing the potential supply of labor in the country is therefore becoming more important by the day. In future ‘systems design’ particular attention should be paid to overall planning and coordinated development of urban and rural areas so as to enable smoother population flows and a larger potential labor supply. This chapter focuses on issues relating to population mobility. It looks at necessary adjustments in policies relating to the management of the ‘floating population’ and the provision of social services. It looks at measures to enhance future labor supply through balanced development of urban and rural areas.