The elimination of gender disparities and the promotion of gender equality are jointly listed as one of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. These are challenges that the entire world is facing. More stable and harmonious societies, more dynamic economies, and more prosperous countries, will only emerge when women enjoy development rights and opportunities that are equal to those of men. The Chinese government has long made efforts to realize gender equality and clear progress has indeed been made. Nevertheless, women still face severe challenges in such realms as employment and healthcare. This chapter focuses primarily on the relationship between gender equality in the society and women’s development. It looks at the challenges to realizing gender equality, and it presents specific measures that might be taken to achieve further gender equality.