A fundamental change has already taken place in the definition of China’s main ‘population problem.’ Overly fast population growth is no longer the main issue. It has been replaced by problems that relate to the structure, quality, and distribution of China’s population. This historic shift is going to have a profound influence on China’s future socioeconomic development. Humans require roughly twenty years for the process of maturing from birth to adulthood. This objective fact means that demographic policies bear results only long after more short-term economic and social policies have an effect. Problems having to do with China’s population structure are becoming more apparent by the day. To correct increasingly sharp imbalances, policy makers must promptly adjust existing policies now. They then must take decisive action in formulating and implementing new policies and procedures.