chapter  4
The momentous industrialization debate: an introduction
Pages 3

By 1922 the Bolshevik leaders had consolidated their victory: by denying effective political representation to Russia's peasant majority (e.g. representation in the Supreme Soviet was weighted 5: 1 in favour of the cities: see Carr, 1966, 136); by crushing peasant and proletarian defiance; by unanimously banning non-party and intra-party pressure groups; by completely banning strikes and independent rade unions; by transforming the official trade unions into state agencies for implementing party policy and for enforcing labour discipline; by steadily substituting appointment-from-above for election-from-below in all important posts; by 'purging' the party (one-fifth of the membership was expelled in 1921, but far more left in disgust: see Schapiro, 1970, 236-7); and by establishing a mixed economy in which large-scale industry, transport, foreign trade and finance remained state monopolies, and agriculture, small workshops and petty trade were to be dominated by family and co-operative ventures. Restrictions on land and capital markets and on private employment of hired labour would impede the making of private profits

and capital gains, and each village would decide how its member households would hold village land (about 90 per cent chose communal tenure: see Lewin, 1968T, 85-93). Urban requisitioning of farm produce gave way to a single, stable, flat-rate tax on the gross output of every smallholding, to promote peasant confidence, renewed agricultural development and urban-rural 'exchange'. Economic concessions were coupled with political stringency, because 'a small minority, ruling by force in the teeth of proletarian and peasant opposition, can ill afford to saw away the only firm branch which supports it -a well disciplined organization' (Schapiro, 1970, 312).