Since this book began with a reappraisal of the possibilities of village-based development, it seems most appropriate to conclude with a reassessment of the actual achievements and pitfalls of rural collectivization, highlighting some of the most striking successes (e.g. in North Korea and parts of Central Asia) as well as some of the disasters (e.g. in Kazakhstan and Mongolia). The results and objectives have been too varied to support any clear-cut or dogmatic verdict on the pros and cons of rural collectivization. It is more fruitful to identify some of the forms and circumstances in which rural collectivization has been successful or unsuccessful in promoting agricultural development.