Enslaved Africans were subject to medical experiments and procedures, surgeries and post-mortem examinations. Medical doctors left various detailed records regarding these areas of enslavement and medicine. While much has been written on medical experimentation, few scholars have acknowledged the powerlessness of enslaved Africans. Few records indicate that enslaved Africans were ever asked permission to have experiments, treatments or procedures performed upon them. No extant records reveal that enslaved Africans ever refused treatment. Records indicate that slaveowners permitted the use of slaves, particularly for experiments which could result in the African being able to return to labor.