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Lecture 15 Chapter 7, Section B: Regression

This chapter discusses that many different periods of development of psychoanalytic theory. The first period, the development of psychoanalytic theory was characterized by the topographic point of view. The second period emphasized the structural differentiation of mind into id, ego, and superego. The third period, which began around 1937 with the publication of Anna Freud's The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense and Heinz Hartmann's Ego Psychology and the Problem of Adaptation, stressed autonomy and dominance of the ego. The second period of theory became necessary because certain clinical observations could not be accounted for on the basis of the earlier. It was specifically the phenomena of narcissism and psychoses that could not be fitted into the earlier, simpler model of "transference neuroses". With respect to the question of homosexuality in paranoia, Freud theorized that the regression from object relations occurs via homosexuality to narcissism. Some varieties of homosexual relationships are closer to mature object love than some heterosexual relationships.