chapter  18
24 Pages

PASSENGERS’ CLAIMS AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITY

Carriers who perform carriage services to passengers on board ships are faced with different risks than those carriers who transport cargoes. Passenger risks, being a third party liability, are also covered by P&I insurance, but the function of insurance, as is the case with all maritime risks that are covered by insurance, is to indemnify a carrier for losses that have been incurred. Obtaining insurance cover is not a way of managing risks in a sense of preventing their occurrence by compliance with international conventions, regulations and EU Directives concerning the safe operation of passenger vessels (see Chapters 8 and 20). Managing risks involved with passenger vessels has become more complex, particularly with regard to the modern and large cruise ships which carry a large number of people.