Pragmatism: Geography and the Real World
The dialectical method for Karl Marx was therefore no substitute for empirical analysis and the gathering of facts but a way of dealing with their interrelations and dynamics. Marx condemns the tendency of conventional social science to abstract from the real conditions of existence in capitalist society. Marx's method has proved particularly useful not only in relation to the traditional questions and problem areas within geography-human-environment relations, urbanism, and regional development but also as a theory of the history and development of geography itself as concrete social activity. Marxist science rests on, and is integrated by, its assumptions about the importance of material production in structuring social processes. The Marxist geography shares these assumptions: it is that part of a whole science which specialises in the dialectical relations between social processes on the one hand and the natural environment and spatial relations on the other. By contrast, Marxism and Marxist geography provide a powerful theoretical and political base for resistance.