TABLE 2 Peer Critique Sheet
All of the elements of the instructional design were refined successively by teachers and researchers during the course of the 2 years, therefore, the entire cycle of research is best characterized as a “design experiment” (Brown, 1992)—an iterative and interactive cycle of invention and revision of the instructional design. We illustrate the evolution of critical standards in this broader instructional context by tracing transitions in standards governing good research questions and good hypermedia documents (i.e., hypermedia documents considered effective tools for learning). Developing critical standards about research questions helped students decide what was worthy of investigation, whereas developing critical standards about hypermedia documents helped students decide how best to communicate the results of their investigations. Because teaching and learning are best viewed in tandem, we also describe how classroom teachers helped students to articulate and revise critical standards and how teachers used changes in critical standards as evidence for student appropriation of the targeted research and communication skills.