chapter  9
Examining Stereotypes of Gender and Race
Pages 26

Katz and Braly's (1933) work is usually cited as one of the earliest ex缸nples of stereotype measur巳ment. Replications of this classic study by Gilbert (1951) and Karlins, Coffman, and Walters (1969) revealed changes in the uniformity of racial stereotypes across time and a tendency for Americans to attribute more negative characteristics to themselv巳s. However, the technique used to quantify social stereotypes in these studies has been criticized (Brown, 1986).