chapter  3
Validating Memories
Pages 34

Piaget noted an important implication of his anecdote: Accurate memories can reflect the same process as his false memories. Even a remembrance that is demonstrably valid may be a memory of a memory, rather than a recollection of an actual episode that the rememberer witnessed. This issue bedevils psychological studies of early recollections (e.g., Howes, Siegal, & Brown, 1993; Usher & Neisser, 1993). Researchers cannot be certain whether individuals recall their <?wn experiences or whether they inadvertently include information that other people have provided about an event.