The Urban Awakening
But the Urban Awakening cannot be explained merely by a panic and new technology. There was intellectual ferment throughout the land, centering in the cities and the universities. Liberal Protestantism and various Progressive movements battled with a militant fundamentalist revival, and changing patterns of immigration. There was a new industrial workforce, and thousands of mill hands, to deal with.4 The frontier "out west" was disappearing. In 1890, it officially closed. God moves in mysterious ways. After the Civil War, in the not-very-United States, He moved His revivals into the cities.