This chapter focuses on psychological issues such as those implied in James's proposal. Cross-cultural developmental analysis helps to explain the origins and contingent developmental course of the widest possible variety of behaviors. This type of analysis helps to distinguish behaviors that emerge and develop in a culture-dependent fashion from those that are independent of culture. The chapter is divided conceptually into two halves. The first concerns the nature and the second the substance of cross-cultural developmental comparison. Cross-cultural developmental comparison has its origins in many academic disciplines, including philosophy, history, biology, and anthropology. Cross-cultural developmental comparison has the potential to combine the best that cross-cultural research and developmental research can offer into a positive synergy. Contemporary cross-cultural developmental psychology needs to accelerate its efforts if it intends to address the goals. Cognitive development has received an enormous degree of attention from cross-culturalists.