chapter  8
Pages 12

The individuals I interviewed had experienced a psychic trauma in the loss of their siblings, and, as clinicians have documented, traumatized individu­ als have difficulty controlling their anxious and aggressive feelings (Van der Kolk, 1987). The warding off of unpleasant affect becomes central and avoidance defenses come into play. The hallmarks of posttraumatic stress disorder-amnesia, detachment, restriction of affect, and foreshortening of the future-surfaced in individuals who lost their sibling or siblings.