chapter  10
Guilt
Pages 13

Although anxiety can serve as a defense against depression, both anxiety and depression can mask an underlying sense of guilt. Clinicians have reported that a frequent theme expressed by Holocaust survivors was their feeling that they should not be alive and that they should have died instead of the parent or sibling. Based on his clinical work with almost 2,000 survivors of the Holocaust, Niederland (1981) believed that it is not guilt over repressed death wishes but the survival itself that stood at the core of the inner conflict.