chapter  13
56 Pages

The Vicissitudes of Social Behavior and Mental Life

ByThomas K. Srull 203

Barker, R. G., 240, 245 Barnden, J. A . , 197, 200 Barndollar, K., 36, 40, 41, 42, 49, 54, 234, 245 Baron, L., 125, 130 Barsalou, L. W., 2,52,55,193,200,206,214,244,

245 Bartlett, F. C. , 122, 128, 130 Baruch, O., 224, 230 Bator, R. J., 32, 49, 55 Baumeister, R. F., 81, 231, 233, 235, 238 Beegle, W., 220, 228 Begg, I., 147, 154 Bern, D. J., 4, 55, 85, 86, 93, 126, 130 Berger, J., 225, 230 Berkowitz, L., 7, 16,55, 83,84,85,88,89,93,93,

94, 205,214, 232,239, 241 Berntson, G. G., 26, 27, 55, 133, 138, 141, 190,

201 Berry, J., 122, 131 Berscheid, E., 20, 60 Biernat, M . R., 152, 155 Bigler, R., 152, 154 Birch, D., 5, 40, 54, 399 Bisiach, E., 223, 227 Bjorklund, D. E, 157, 176 Blair, I.V., 71,72, 74 Bless, H . , 94, 145, 149, 155, 193, 201 Bobrow, D . G . , 161, 178 Bodenhausen, G . V , 15, 18,58, 150,156, 193,201 Boies, S.J., 159, 163, 178 Bond, R. R , 14, 22, 35, 46, 49, 54, 150, 154 Bonilla, S., 150, 156 Borgida, E., 151, 155 Bormann, C., 7, 60 Bowdle, B. E, 126, 130 Bower, G. H. , 94, 115,118,119 Bowers, K. S., 50, 55,213,214 Boysen, S. T., 138, 141 Bradley, M . M . , 26, 27, 28, 58, 138, 141 Branscombe, N . R., 7, 60, 196, 202 Brehm, J. W., 32, 61 Brendl, C . M . , 184, 186 Brewer, M . B., 12, 14, 18, 45, 55, 114, 118 Broadbend, D. E., 158, 159, 176 Brown, S. C. , 209,215 Bruner, J. S., 13, 14, 55, 212, 214, 239, 245

Fazio, R. R , 5, 7, 8,20, 21,22, 26,49,56, 71, 72, 74, 148, 150,154,193,202, 224,228

Fein, S., 153, 155 Feinstein, J., 135, 141 Feldman, S., 183, 185, 186 Felleman, D. J., 192, 201 Festinger, L , 2, 56 Fischer, G . W., 155 Fiske, S. T , 2,5,15,49,51,56,61,187,201,243,

245 Fitz, D., 92, 94 Fitzgerald, L F, 45, 57 Flavell, J. R , 8, 57 Fodor, J. A . , 9, 57 Ford, T. E., 152, 154 Forgas.J. R, 115, 119 Foucault, M . , 240, 245 Franklin, S., 188, 195, 201 Franzel, S. L., 166, 179 Freud, S., 68, 74, 116, 119 Friedrich, F. J., 222, 228 Frijda, N . R , 85,94, 106, 119 Froming,W.J., 16, 17,48,55 Fyock, J., 152, 154

G

Gaertner, S. L., 70, 74, 149, 153, 154 Galanter, E., 8, 10, 59, 101, 102 Ganellen, R.J., 16, 17,48, 55 Garcia, M . , 236, 245 Gardner, W. L., 133, 139, 141, 231, 235, 236 Gates, R L , 123, 129, 130 Gaudiano, R, 191, 194, 201 Gazzaniga, M . , 30, 50, 57, 139, 141 Geen, R. G., 89, 94 Gelade, G. , 163, 165, 166, 178 George, M . S., 139, 141 Gerard, H . B., 65, 74 Gibson, B. D., 152, 155 Giddens, A . , 240,245 Gilbert, D. T., 5,13,15,51,57,114,119,136,141,

146, 154, 157, 176, 198,201,220,228 Giner-Sorolla, R., 20, 31, 35, 37, 49, 56 Glass, B., 151, 152, 156 Gluck, M . , 225, 228 Goldstein, D., 147, 154 Gollwitzer, R M . , 8, 31, 32, 36, 39, 40, 41, 49, 55,

57,61,234, 240, 244, 245,246 Gopher, D., 161, 164, 165, 177 Gorman, T. E, 150, 156 Gotay, C. C., 88, 94 Govender, R., 20, 21, 22, 25, 27, 28, 54, 71, 74,

148,154 Gray, J. A . , 159, 176 Green, M . , 42, 54 Greene, R R , 101, 102

Greenwald, A . G., 1, 6, 12, 57, 67, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74, 148, 151,154, 204,214, 221,228

Griffitt, W., 86, 94 Gurtman, M . B., 18, 59

H Haase, S. J., 221, 230 Haddock, G. , 149, 154 Haidt, J., 239,245 Hamilton, D. L , 33, 57, 147, 154, 209, 210, 214 Hansen, R. D., 5, 57 Hardin, C. , 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 145, 147,148, 149,

151,154,155, 239, 240, 241 Harford, R. A . , 76, 77, 81 Harnisfenger, K. K., 157, 176 Harter, N . , 167, 176 Hasher, L , 154, 168, 177,218, 228 Hashtroudi, S., 146, 155 Hastie, R., 15,34,57, 152, 155, 209 Hayes, A . , 167, 178, 220, 230 Hayes-Roth, B., 30, 57 Heatherton, T. E, 77, 81 Hebb, D. O. , 7, 30, 48,57 Heckhausen, R , 31, 32, 37, 39, 57 Hefferline, R. E, 76, 77, 81 Heider, E, 106,119,212,214 Henik, A . , 168,177,214,118,220,221,222,225,

228,229,230 Hernstein, R. J., 85, 94 Herr, R M . , 17,57 Herscovitch, R, 139, 141 Hicks, R., 166, 177 Higgins, E. T , 5, 7, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 35, 36, 37,

38, 39, 40, 41, 49, 54, 57, 60, 61, 144, 145, 146, 150, 154, 155, 184, 186, 195, 196, 197, 198, 200,201,245

Hilgard, E. R., 16, 30, 57 Hill, T , 67, 74, 152,155 Hilton, J. L., 152, 153, 155 Hinton, G. E., 189, 202 Hintzman, D. L , 50, 57 Hirst, W., 166,177, 233,246 Hitch, G., 213, 214 Hixon, J. G., 220, 228 Hodges, S., 20, 58 Hodges, S. D., 193, 202 Holender, D., 221, 228 Horner, M . S., 37, 58 Horwitz, B., 139, 141 Hovland, C . I., 203, 214 Humphreys, M . S., 196, 200, 201, 202 Hymes, C , 22, 23, 27, 46, 49, 51, 54, 108, 109,

Isen, A . M . , 115, 119 Iwata,J.,23,26, 58, 139, 141

250 Author Index

Iyengar, S., 128, 131

Jackson, D. R , 37, 58 Jackson, J. R., 72, 74, 148, 150, 154 Jacoby, L. L., 9,42,58, 70, 74,157,177,188,201,

217,218,219, 228 James, W., 16, 58, 167, 169, 177 Janis, I. L , 203, 214 Jarvis, B., 135, 141 Jaynes.J., 76, 77,81 Johnson, M . K., 9, 23, 58, 155 Johnson-Laird, P. N. , 106, 119 Jones, C . R., 7, 14, 49,57, 144, 145, 155,245 Jones, E. E., 9, 45, 58, 65, 68, 74 Jordon, M . I., 189, 202 Jung, C . G. , 30, 58 Just, M . A . , 157, 177

• Kahneman, D., 157, 158, 159, 163, 168, 177 Kail, R., 157, 177 Kalmar, D., 166, 177 Kantowitz, B. H., 162, 177 Kaplan, B., 8, 61 Kardes, F. R., 7, 8, 20, 21, 22, 25, 56, 71, 74, 224,

228 Karniol, R., 5, 50, 58 Karp, L , 115, 119 Katz, L B., 33, 57, 208, 209, 210,214 Kawamoto, A . H . , 189, 202 Keenan, B., 76, 77, 81 Keil, F., 198, 201 Kelley, C . M . , 70, 74 Kelley, R H . , 5, 44, 51, 58, 61, 203, 214 Keltner, D., 88, 94 Kerr,T., 147, 154 Ketelaar, T., 235, 236, 237 Ketter, T. A . , 139, 141 Kihlstrom, J. E , 217, 223,228 Kim, J. K.,23, 58 Kinder, D. L , 128, 131 King, G. A . , 13, 57 Kinsbourne, M . , 166, 177 Kipnis, D., 45, 47, 58 Kirsch, J., 119 Kirsner, K., 10, 40, 56 Kitayama, S., 130, 131 Klatsky,R. L , 152, 153 Klein, S. B., 10, 58 Klinger,M. R., 221, 228 Klumpp, G. , 149, 155 Klüver, R , 53, 58 Knowlton, B., 224, 229 Koffka, K., 7, 9, 16, 58, 208,214

Kohler, W., 225, 228 Kolb, B., 139, 141 Koller, S. R , 239, 245 Knill, D.S., 13,57, 157, 176 Kühl, J., 23,58 Kumar, R, 15, 34, 57 Kunda, Z., 242, 245

L

LaBerge, D., 167, 168, 177 Lachman, J. L , 213, 214 Lachman, R., 213, 214 Laird, J. D.,88, 94 Lang, P. J., 26, 27, 28,58, 138, 141 Lashley, K. S., 16, 53, 58 Latané , B., 2, 4, 56, 64, 74, 135,141, 207, 215 Lazarus, R. S., 8, 50, 58, 109, 119, 213, 215 LeDoux, J. E., 7, 23, 24, 26, 27,58, 114,119, 139,

Leinbach, M . , 152, 154 Leirer, V. O., 33, 57, 208, 209, 210, 214 Leiser, D., 218, 230 LePage, A . , 16, 55, 88, 94 Lerner, M . , 7, 60, 225, 229 Levey, A . B., 225, 229 Levine, J. M . , 197,201 Levy, B., 219, 228 Lewicki, R, 67,74, 145, 152, 155 Lewin, K., 7, 9, 26, 27, 39, 58, 208, 212, 215 ü b e n , I., 152, 154 Liberman, A . , 5, 56 Lichtenstein, M . , 34, 58, 60, 209, 215 Lindsay, D. S., 146, 155 Linville, R, 149, 155 Litt, J., 24, 54 Locurto, C . M . , 220, 228 Loftus, E. E, 23,44,56 LoftusJ., 10,58 Logan, G. D., 157, 158, 167, 169, 171, 172, 177,

179, 198,201, 213, 215, 218, 220, 225, 228,229, 237, 238, 239,246

Lopez, D.F.,21,54 Lorch, R. F., Jr., 22, 23, 44, 54, 58 Luevano, M . , 150, 156 Luger, G. E, 207, 215 Lui, L , 18, 55 Lynch, L , 151, 152, 156

M

McClelland, D. C , 37, 50, 59 McClelland, J. L., 171, 176, 189, 192, 193, 194,

198, 200,201,202,1X1,215 McDonel, E. C , 49, 56

McDowd.J . M . , 157, 176 McGuire, W. J., 203, 211,215 MacKay, D. G., 171,177 McKoon, G., 71,74, 148,155 McLaughlin, J. R, 70,74 MacLeod, C . M . , 172, 177 Macmillan, N . A . , 229 McNamara, T. P., 148, 155 McNaughton, B. L , 198, 200, 201 Macrae, C . N . , 15, 18,58 Malamuth, N . M . , 46, 58, 151, 155 Mandler.G., 108, 119, 223,229 Manis, M . , 152, 155 Marcel, A . J., 24, 59, 221,229 Markus, H . , 193, 201 Markus, H . R., 130, 131 MarshalLGoodell, B. S., 139, 141 Martin, L, 225, 229 Martin, L. L., 5, 59, 146, 156, 198, 201 Martin, R. C . , 148, 156 Martindale, C. , 5, 59 Masson, M . E , 196, 201 Mavin, G . H . , 13, 57 Melchner.M.J. , 162, 178 Merikle,P.M.,221,229 Meyer, D. E , 44, 59 Milgram, S., 2, 59, 64, 74 Miller, G. A . , 8, 10, 59, 100, 101, 102, 166, 177 Miller, J., 165, 177 Miller, N . , 91, 94 Mills, C.J . , 14, 59 Milne, A . B., 15, 18,58 Mischel, W., 7,9,59,183,184,185,186,208,215,

231,232,239, 246 Moray, N. , 159, 163, 177 Morris, M . W., 123, 131 Moskowitz,G. B.,5,13,51,61,146,156,240,246 Movellan, J. R., 192, 202 Munro, P. W., 189, 202 Murphy, S. T , 7, 20, 21,23,25,59, 114,119, 219,

221,222,225,226, 229 Murray, H., 37, 59 Murray, J., 152, 153 Murre, J. M . , 194, 202 Musen, G. , 224, 229 Myers, C. , 225, 228

Naveh-Benjamin, M . , 217, 219, 224, 230 Navon, D., 161, 164, 165, 166, 177, 224, 229 Neely,J. H.,21,44, 59,71,74, 222 Negroponte, R , 10, 11, 59 Neil, W . T , 166, 177 Neisser, U. , 8, 52, 59, 218, 229, 233, 246 Nelson, T. E., 152, 155 Neuberg,S. L , 17,59 Neumann, O., 218, 220, 224, 229

Newell, A . , 3,6,11,28,50,59,171,177,218,229 Newman, L. S., 13,51,59,61 Newsom, J. T., 35, 56 Newton, L, 65, 74 Niedenthal, P. M . , 7, 20, 21,51, 59 Nisbett, R. E , 1, 9, 45, 50, 58, 59, 121, 122, 126,

129, 130, 131, 143, 145, 155, 181, 186, 239,246

Norman, D. A . , 95, 97, 99, 102, 159, 161, 177, 178, 189,202,229

Osgood, C . E , 24, 26, 27, 28,59, 107,119 Ovsiankina, M . , 39, 59

Paap, K. R., 168, 178 Parekh, R L, 139, 141 Park, B., 34, 57, 152, 155, 209,214 Pashler, H., 166, 170, 178 Pavelchak, M . , 49, 56 Peake, R, 184, 186 Pelham, B.W., 13,57, 157, 176 Peng, K., 123, 126, 131 Pennington, B. F., 224, 230 Penrose, R., 204, 215 Perdue, C. W , 18, 59 Pervin, L. A . , 5, 59 Petty, R. E , 134, 135, 139, 141,246 Piaget, J., 16, 59 Pietromonaco, P., 7, 14, 15,34,55, 157, 176, 209,

214, 245 Pinker, S., 197, 202 Pittman, T. S., 59 Poortinga, Y., 122, 131 Porat, Z., 221, 230 Posner, M . I., 21, 53, 60, 135, 141, 158, 163, 166,

167, 168,178,213,215,218, 229 Post, R. M . , 141 Powell, M . C , 7, 8, 20, 21, 22, 25,56, 71, 74, 224,

228 Powers, W. T , 98, 100, 102 Pratto.F., 13,14,18, 20,21,22,24,25,27,28,49,

54, 60,71,74, 148,154 Presser, S., 128, 131 Pribram, K. R , 8, 10, 59, 101, 102 Price, R. H.,95, 102 Priester, J. R., 26, 55

Prince, A . , 197, 202 Prinz, W., 16, 60, 243, 246 Pryor, J. B., 45,46,47,55,60,151,154,155

Rabin, D. E., 189, 202 Rafal, R., 220, 229 Ratcliff.R., 71,74, 148,155 Raymond, P, 7, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 45, 46, 47, 49,

50,51,54,55, 108, 109,118, 151,154 Razran, G , 86, 94 Reaves, A . L , 126,131 Reed, J. S., 124,131 Reeves, A . , 163, 178 Regan, J. E., 168, 178 Reingold, E. M . , 221,229 Reiss, D.J., 23,26, 58, 139, 141 Resnick, I. B., 197, 201 Reuman, D. A . , 37, 60

Rholes, W. S., 7, 14,49,57,144, 145,155,245 Rilling, M . , 2, 60 Ringelmann, M . , 203, 215 Riskind.J. H. ,88,94 Risse, G , 23, 58 Robbins, M . , 115, 119 Rock, I., 223,229 Rodin, J., 207, 215 Rodriguez, M . L , 184, 186 Roenker, D. L., 209,215 Roman, R.J., 146, 156 Rosch, E.,95, 102 Roseman, I. L , 85, 94 Rosenbloom, P S., 3, 11, 28, 59, 171, 177, 218,

229 Rosenfield, I., 204,215 Roskos-Ewoldsen, D. R., 193, 202 Ross, L D., 65, 74,121, 122,131, 143,155, 181,

186 Ross, M., 1, 5, 50, 58 Rothbart, M . , 34, 60, 209,215 Rothman, A . J., 69, 71, 74, 145, 147, 149, 151,

154,155, 239, 240,241 Ruble, D., 152, 155 Rudman, L. A . , 151, 155 Rueckl, J. G , 192, 193, 202 Rumelhart, D. E., 50,60, 189,192,201,202, 213,

215 Russell, B., 44, 60

Salovey, R, 19, 60, 149, 155 Salthouse, T. A., 157,177,178 Samuels, S.J., 167, 168, 177

Sanbonmatsu, D. M . , 7, 8, 20, 21, 22, 25, 56, 71, 74,152,155, 224,228

Sanders, I. M . , 128, 131 Sartre, J. R, 80,81 Sasaki, I., 152, 155 Schachter, S., 2, 60 Schank, R. C , 100, 103 Scheier, M . E, 95, 96, 98, 100, 102 Scherer,K. R., 112, 119 Schiller, R, 158,178 Schmidt, H . , 166,178

Schneider, W , 30, 60, 135, 141, 167, 168, 171, 178,213,215,218, 220,229

Schuh, E. S., 221,228 Schuman, H., 128, 131 Schvaneveldt, R. W , 44, 59 Schwartz, E, 158, 178 Schwartz, R , 110, 117, 118, 120 Schwarz, N., 86,94,105, 110,113, 114, 115,119,

126, 130, 145, 146, 149, 155, 156, 193, 200

Searle, J. R., 204, 215 Sedikedis, C , 145, 155 Segali, M . R , 122, 131 Seidenberg, M . S., 192, 200, 202 Sejonowski,T.J., 189, 191, 194, 201 Seligman, M . E., 50, 53 Seta, J. J., 198, 201 Shalker,T.E., 115, 119 Shallice, T., 53, 60, 99,102,103,229 Shastri, L , 197,202 Sheerer, D., 31, 35, 56 Sheehan, K., 88, 94 Shelton,J., 148,156 Sherman, S.J., 49, 56, 147, 154 Shiffrin, R. M , 10, 30, 50, 54, 60, 135, 141, 167,

168, 171, 178, 207, 213, 214, 215, 218, 220, 229

Shoda, Y., 183, 184, 185,186, 232, 239, 246 Shulman, D., 88, 94 Simon, H. A . , 29,41,50, 52,59,61,96,103, 106,

119,147,156, 239,246 Singer, J. A . , 2, 19, 60 Skinner, B. E , 1, 2, 52, 60, 63, 70, 73, 74 Sloman, S. A . , 197, 199, 202 Smith, E. R., 3, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 28, 60, 145, 152,

156, 189, 190, 194, 196, 197, 200, 202, 225, 229, 231, 232, 236, 237, 242, 243, 246

Smolensky, R, 197, 202, 231 Sneg, R., 224, 230 Snyder, C R., 21,53, 60,135,141, 167, 168, 178,

213,215,218,229 Snyder, M . , 20, 60, 203,215 Solarz, A . , 27, 28, 60 Solomons, L. M . , 167, 178 Sommer, K. L , 231, 233, 235, 238 Sorrentino, R. M . , 37, 60

Spelkc, E , 233, 246 Sperber, D., 127, 131 Sperling, G , 162, 163, 178 Spielman, L A . , 24, 49, 54, 60 Squire, L , 138, 141 Squire, R. L , 224, 229 Srull, T. K., 5, 7,12,13,14,16,18,33,34,39,40,

44,48,52,58,60,61,114,120,144,156, 190, 195, 202, 205, 209, 215, 216, 231, 233, 234, 235, 239,246

Stangor, C , 151, 152, 154, 155, 156 Ste-Marie, D.,218, 228 Steele, C . M . , 50, 61 Steibach, K.,219, 228 Stein, G. , 167, 178 Steller, B., 31, 32, 57 Stewart, T. L , 145, 156, 196, 202 Stone, G. O. , 224, 230 Strack, E , 45, 55, 146, 149, 151,154, 155,156 Strauman, T. J., 5, 15,49,61 Straus, M . A . , 125, 130 Stroop, J. R., 172, 178,219,229 Strum, G , 88, 94 Suci, G. S., 24,59, 107,119 Sunstein, C . R., 128, 131 Swam, T. S., 85, 94

T

Tanke, E. D., 20, 60 Tannenbaum, P. H . , 24, 59, 107, 119 Tassinary, L. G. , 139, 141 Taylor, S. E , 5, 50,51,61 Teasdale, J., 50, 53 Tesser, A . , 5, 59 Thagard, R, 242, 245 Thein, R. D., 13,15,34,46,55,209,214,237,245 Theios, J., 221,230 Thibaut, J. W., 44, 61 Thompson, C . R, 209,215 Thompson, E R, 146,156 Thompson, R., 139, 141 Tice, D. M . , 77, 81 Tipper, S. R, 166, 178 Tolman, E. C , 225, 230 Tomkins, S. S., 85, 94 Tooby,J.,9,61 Toppino, T , 147, 154 Tota, M . E , 3, 5, 15, 22, 35, 46, 49, 54, 55, 150,

154, 189, 200, 237,245 Toth,J. R, 189,201,218,228 Townsend, J. T , 160, 161, 162, 174, 178 Treisman, A . , 159, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 177,

178,219, 220,230 Triandis, H . G , 123, 131 Triplett, N . , 203, 216 Troccoli, B. T , 88, 94

Trope, Y , 114, 120 Trost, M . R., 35, 56 Turnbull, G M . , 122, 131 Tyler, R. B., 70, 74 Tyrrell, D. J., 14, 59 Tzelgov, J., 217,218,219,221,222,224,225,228,

230, 232,234, 241,242

Uleman, J. S., 5, 13, 51, 59, 61, 143, 156 Ullman, S., 166, 178,219, 230 Usher, M . , 193, 194, 202

Vallacher, R. R., 226, 230 Van Essen, D. G , 192, 201 Van Orden, G G , 224, 230 Velmans, M . , 223, 230 Vera, A . H. , 29, 41, 52, 61, 147, 156, 239, 246 Veroff, J., 37, 60 Vieira, A . , 167, 178, 220, 230

W

Wanke, M , 193, 201 Wedderburn, A . A . , 159, 176 Wegner, D. M . , 11, 20,58,61, 157,178, 226,230,

242, 244,246 Weldon, M . , 162, 177 Welford, A . T , 158, 170 Werner, H . , 8, 61 West, L.J., 165, 170, 179 Whishaw, I. Q., 139, 141 Whitehead, A . N . , 10, 61 Wickens, G D., 164, 170 Wicklund, R. A . , 32, 39, 61 Wiest, G , 85, 94 Wilensky,R.,8,61 Wiles, J., 196, 202 Wilkin, N . , 115, 119 Williams, G J., 72, 74, 148, 150, 154 Williams, R. J., 189, 202 Wilson, J. Q.,85,94

Wilson, T D . , 50,59,121,131,145,155,193,202 Winkielman, R R, 114, 117, 118, 120 Winter, L , 5, 13, 61 Wolfe, J. M . , 166, 179 Wong, F. Y , 84, 94 Wong, N . Y , 126, 131 Wood, W , 84, 94 Wright, H . F., 239, 240, 245

Wright, J. C , 184, 186 Wurf, E., 193, 201 Wyer, R. S., 5, 7,12,13,14, 16,18,33,39,40,44,

48,52,61,114,120,144,150,156,190, 195,202,209,215,216, 246

Yehene, V , 217, 219, 224, 225, 230 Yonelinas, A . R, 189, 201

Zacks, R.T. , 168, 177,218, 228 Zajonc, R. B., 4, 7, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 51, 59, 61,

105, 114, 117, 118, 119, 120, 141, 191, 202, 219, 221, 222, 225, 226,229, 230

Zanna, M . R, 146, 149, 154, 156 Zarate, M . A . , 145, 150, 152, 156 Zawadski, B., 203, 216 Zbrodoff,N.F.,218, 229 Zbrodoff,N.J., 172, 179 Zillman, D., 61 Zipser, D., 189, 202

147-153 judgment/behavior and, 144-146 learning and, 151-153

Automaticity, 81,140,188,243-244, see also Conscious mediation; Resource theory

52-53,98-101,222-223, 226-227

Behavior, 76, 95, 107, 108, 238, see oho Behaviorism; Environment-behavior effects; Free will; Perception-tehavior effects; Social psychology

default response, 99-100 emotions and, 111-113 evaluation interface, 25-28 influence of judgments on, 51, 64-65 situational influence and, 3, 5, 64, 140,

Categorization, 110, see also Social cognition; Trait Categorization

Cognitive processes, 9, 189, 197, see also Perception-behavior effects; Stimulus control issue

affective processes and, 23-25, 50-51, 191-192

Connectionist models, 189-200, 242 connections modified by learning in,

194-195

conscious mediation and, 196-199 Conscious mediation, 217, 231, see also Con-

sciousness; Environment-behavior effects; Evaluation; Goal and motive activation; Perception-behavior effects; Social cognition; Social psychology

applicability and, 146-147, 150 attribution theory and, 5, 84-85 automatic processing and, 2-5, 121,

134-136, 135 connectionist models and, 196-199 control vs. monitoring and, 225-226 interaction of, 196-199, 242-243 psychological situation and, 1-3, 6-10, 50,

75, 76, 223 social behavior and, 6, 76-77, 84-86,

134-140, 143, 235-236 testing of, 188-189

automaticity definition and, 218-219 evocative vs. deliberative, 226-227 linearity of, 100-101

Conscious processes, see Awareness; Intention; Free will; Conscious mediation

Cultural socialization, 121-130, 239-240 cognitive theory and, 121, 130 cross-cultural research and, 124-127 perception-behavior effects and, 122-123

Emotions, 225, see also Cognitive theory cognitive theory and, 106, 108, 109 levels of, behavior and, 111-113 positive vs. negative, 23-24, 108-110 preconscious processes and, 2, 3, 5-7, 9, 10,

15,20-21,85, 105-106 research, 87-88 unconscious processes and, 20-21, 106

Environment-behavior effects, 95, see also Automaticity; Behavior; Psychological situation; Social behavior

affective processes and, 7, 48, 84, 86, 128 automatic processes and, 233-235, 241 conscious mediation and, 50-53, 64-65,

75-81,235,242 environmental representation and, 28-30,

144, 232-233 preconscious processes and, 7, 9-11, 28, 83,

207, 233-235, 240-241 self-regulatory behavior and, 96-98

affective processes and, 23-24, 110, 113-114 approach/avoidance reactions and, 12,

26-28,48-49, 138 attitude activation and, 5, 21-23 behavior interface, via motivation, 25-28 conscious mediation and, 6, 9-12, 13, 28,

51, 107, 236-238,240 levels of, 107-108, 112,236-237 priming effects, 7, 21, 24-25, 48, 49, 107,

110-111, 115, 118

Feedback, 96-97, 225 Feeling, 1, 2, 6, 84, 97, 143-144, 182 Free will, 52

automatic processing and, 181-182 behavior and, 79, 80-31, 84-85, 187-188 illusion of, 2, 243 role of, 1, 5-6 self-determination and, 97-98

Gender, see Stereotyping Goal and motive activation, see also Impression

formation; Information processing goals; Power

chronic goal interaction and, 36-38, 47 conscious mediation and, 6-12, 29, 52, 75,

97-98, 233-234 goal processing and, 42-44 mental representation and, 7-8, 41-42 priming effects, 35, 37-38, 87, 226 skill acquisition and, 6, 11-12, 28-29, 99 social cognition and, 48-49, 116-117, 138

Goal selection research, 5-6

Ideomotor action principle, 16, 87 Impression formation, 12-13, 33-35, 49, 234 Information processing, see Representation; Re-

source theory Information processing goals

individual differences in, 184-185 person perception and, 33, 49, 208-209 persuasive communication motives and,

83 social, activation/operation of, 33-35 unconscious processes and, 31-36, 208-209

Intention, 10-12, 16-17, 33, 112, 188

ity; Behavior category use in, 151-152 social, 6, 114-115 thought/feeling and, 143-144

Learning, 2, 76, see also Connectionist models applicability and, 151-153 connectionist theory and, 194-195 preconscious processes and, 224-225

Memory, 7, 16, 23, 49, 76, 95, 98, 238 automaticity as, 171-173 declarative/nondeclarative, 224-225 goals, 33-34

Mental representation, 44, 184, 193, see also Goal and motive activation; Representation

Mood, 9, 18, 88, 111, 114, 115, 118 Motivation, see also Achievement motivation;

Goal and motive activation; Perception-behavior effects

Neuropsychological perspectives, 23, 26-27, 138-140, 236

Perception-behavior effects, 36, 219, 221, 238, 240, see also Aggression

affective processes and, 192-193 approach/avoidance motivation and, 48-49 cognitive processes and, 4, 75-76, 117, 182 conscious mediation and, 2, 5-12, 76, 107,

167-168, 182 cultural behavior theory and, 122-123 environment-behavior effects and, 12-13,

15-17, 50-51 ideomotor action principle and, 16, 87 perceptual states and, 38-40 priming effects and, 13-16 stereotype activation and, 18-20

Postconscious automaticity, see Preconscious processing

Power, 63 sex association, automatic, 45-47, 50, 78

as a situational feature, 44-45 Preattentive processes, preconscious processes

and, 8, 219-220 resource theory and, 167-168

Preconscious processes, 127, 128, 137, see also Cognitive processes; Conscious mediation; Emotions; Preattentive processes; Stereotyping effects; Unconscious related topics

consciousness of output of, 226-227 definition, 187-189 learning and, 224-225 perceptual processes and, 167-168 resource theory and, 158-159 social/nonsocial information and, 8-9, 221 vs. postconscious automaticity, 3, 14, 86-87,

222,241 Priming effects, 196, 238, see also Achievement

and affiliation priming effects; Evaluation; Goal and motive activation

perception-behavior effects and, 13-16, 48 trait concept activation, 17-20, 49

Psychological situation, see also Conscious mediation

environment-behavior effects and, 6-8, 232-233

Representation, 2, 16, 23, 227, see also Mental representation; Situational representations

environmental, see Environment-behavior effect

information processing and, 189-190, 192 stimulus, awareness and, 8, 66-67

Resource (attention) theory, 157-176, 197, see also Attention

automaticity and, 169-171, 173-175 information processing capacity and,

160-165, 173-175 preattentive processing and, 167-168 social cognition research and, 237-239

E

Self-concept, 15-16, 193, 233 Self-determination, 97-98 Self-regulation, 183-185, 192 Serial stage vs. parallel (modular) model, 6, 9-10,

50-53, 72-73, 87, 100-103, 111-112, 138,139, 162-163, 190-192, 196, 206

Sexual aggression, see Power Situational effects, see Behavior; Environ-

ment-behavior interface; Automatic processing

Situational representations, 29-30, 48 Skill acquisition, see Goal and motive activation Social behavior, 20, see also Conscious mediation;

Social cognition automatic processing and, 2, 121, 134, 183 environment-behavior effects and, 15-16,

64-66, 73, 183 Social cognition, 10, 133, 144, 205, 221, see also

Goal and motive activation; Resource theory

conscious mediation and, 50-51, 138-139,

203-204 ecological validity and, 210-211 environment-behavior effects and, 8,

48-49,184, 237-239 generalization/categorization and, 70-71,

206-208 models, 5-6, 9 neuropsychological views, 139-140

Social psychological phenomena, 1,3, 137 Social psychology, 1, 83, 187, 231, see also Cogni-

tive theory; Connectionist models automaticity research and, 3, 6, 63, 134, 140 automatic mental processes and, 63-64 conscious mediation and, 5-6, 185-186 experimental, 84-85, 212-213 microenvironments/microbehaviors and,

66-68,239 perceiving action at a distance, 64-66 redefining, 185-186 situational influence and, see Automatic

processing

Stereotyping effects, 38, 107, 193, 238, see also Applicability; Trait categorization

gender, 69, 147, 150-151, 152 implicit-automatic, in social microenviron-

ments, 68-73 learned automaticity and, 5-7, 14, 78-79 preconscious activation, 14-15, 18-20, 220

Stimulus control issue, preconscious processes and, 7, 9, 14, 15, 152

cognitive processes and, 2, 23-24, 183-185 conscious processes and, 3, 6, 51, 219-222,

226, 241 stimulus evaluation and, 20-21, 27-28, 108,

115 Stimulus representation, see Awareness

T

Thought, 1,2,6, 12,84, 97, 197 judgment and, 143-144 processes, 76, 182

Trait categorizations, 6, 7, 33, see also Priming effects

accessibility and, 13-14, 147-148, 195-196

Unconscious attributions, see Attributions Unconscious automatic processes, 152, 172, 225,

see also Affective processes; Information processing goals

emotions and, 20-21, 106 Unconscious cognitive structure, 157-158