Multiple Group Identities: Differentiation, Conflict, and Integration
Recent writing on identity development in adolescence emphasizes the fact that it is not simply an intrapsychic process, but also an interper sonal process, embedded in a social context (Hart, 1988; Josselson, 1988; Noam, 1988). Hogan and Cheek (1983) noted that an authentic identity does not simply mean being autonomous, but rather successfully integrat ing both the personal and social aspects of identity. The social context has been most often conceptualized in terms of significant others, primar ily parents and friends with whom the adolescent interacts on a daily basis. However, in addition to family and peers, the larger context, such as ethnic group, class, or society, plays an important role in the forma tion of identity. Research on identity development has paid relatively little attention to the broader context, a fact that is surprising in view of Erik son’s (1968) assertions that the identity process is located “ m the core o f the individual” and yet also “ m the course o f his com m unal culture” (p. 22). Erikson emphasized that we cannot separate personal growth from communal change, noting the importance of “ the interplay between the psychological and the social, the developmental and the historical” (p. 23).