Metamorphosis from Rod and Frame to Visual-Vestibular Interaction
In 1948 Solomon Asch and Herman Witkin published a series of four nowclassical papers on spatial orientation. The studies were inspired largely by the concept of frame of reference and the tenet of relational determination so central to Gestalt Psychology as developed by Max Wertheimer (1912) and Kurt Koffka (1935). Like other great scholars before them, Asch and Witkin sharpened and transformed a critical concept so that it could be treated empirically in the confines of a laboratory. Max Wertheimer (1912) had taken a step in this direc tion with his observations on spatial orientation through a tilted mirror but only small numbers of subjects were used and hence the analytical power afforded by hypothesis testing and statistical decision-making was lacking.