Kama-e then refers to a stance. But because kama-e requires the proper reading of ma-ai (the ability to control space) and also because ma-ai constantly changes according to the opponent's movement, kama-e actually is more than a stylized stance. It involves direct cognitive ability. In this context then, kama-e involves a mental attitude - alertness of a kind derived through intense concentration. This mental attribute contributed to the development of the kama-e of no kama-e, Muto-rya, and i-ai.