The late Heian period represents a period of the rise of two major military clans, the Genji and Heike, who originated as the result of dynastic shedding. The Genji decisively defeated the Heike in 1185. During this period, martial arts were developed by the samurai in battlefields through individual efforts. The Kamakura period is characterized by the establishment of a distinctively samurai government, but inasmuch as the history of martial arts is concerned, this is an extension of the previous period. The samurai in this period also developed martial art skills through individual efforts. A radical change took place in the warring states period: martial arts were systematized. When they were systematized, students sought after masters and offered remuneration for their instructions. These masters or their students then began to record the lineage of their schools.