The Social Context of Time Deviance
Al though the number o f lawyers w h o work reduced schedules is relatively small, the demand for work schedules that make it possible for individuals to have both careers and time w i t h their children has become important i n all professions. 1 3 T h e per iod o f life i n w h i c h any career is built coincides w i t h the child-rearing years and thus many o f the most critical professional passages-in law, p romot ion to partnership and to supervisory positions (Heinz and Laumann, 1982)—occur at the same time that law professionals are marrying and starting families. T h e average age o f w o m e n i n law today is 36, about seven years younger than their male colleagues (Curran and Carson, 1994) .When the proport ion o f w o m e n i n law (and i n other professions) was relatively small, the demands posed by family and children were rarely, i f ever, a topic o f discussion. Professional men relied on homemaking wives to care for the home and c h i l - d ren . 1 4 Today, however, the situation is markedly different. N o t only are w o m e n lawyers wor ry ing about how to manage both home and workplace demands, but many men are married to w o m e n w h o have their o w n work and career commitments and can no longer be solely responsible for chi ld care and household responsibilities. Further, todays cultural views about br ing ing up children specify involvement by both parents, orienting men to be responsive to the issue o f part-time work even i f they w o u l d not consider taking it them-
selves (Hays, 1996).Younger people are also questioning the all-encompassing work commitments usually required i n professional life, because careers are not as certain as they were i n the past and they believe that a good life is one that integrates work and family (Newman, 1993).