This is another variable which has a modest eﬀect, but which is of interest this time because of its links with other causes of satisfaction. Many studies have shown the positive eﬀect of education, deﬁned as number of years of education received or the level attained. A typical correlation with well-being in the USA is .13, as found in a meta-analysis by Okun et al. (1984). Education leads to both higher incomes and to jobs of higher occupational status in the USA and Britain.