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## Health

The unemployed are on average in worse physical health. This is partly because some gave up work because of ill-health, such as work-induced heart and lung diseases. Warr (1984) studied 954 British unemployed and found that 27% said their health had become worse since giving up work but 11% said it was better-because of less stress, more relaxation and exercise. The mortality rate was 36% higher in Britain in the 10 years after 1971 (Moser et al., 1984), and there are long-term eﬀects of unemployment by age 33 (Wadsworth et al., 1999). There are several reasons for this poor health-poverty and its eﬀect on diet, heating, etc., poor health behaviour, such as more drinking and smoking, and increased stress, aﬀecting the immune system and increasing heart disease.