chapter  2
21 Pages

Mainstream Classical and Contemporary Theories

The criminological theory is to trawl their main principles, tensions and flaws that explains why a shift through critical realist theory to ultra-realist theory is essential. Psychodynamics is one of the earliest schools of psychology to offer orthodox sociology which tends to lack a sophisticated depth understanding of subjectivity. Developing from its roots around the turn of the twentieth century, it presents a social and criminological theory with a whole new dimension of thought. Conservative control theory is still influential in mainstream criminology and the political, cultural forces are dominant in the neoliberal era of marketization, deregulation, deindustrialization and social disruption. The philosophy of utilitarianism added a naturalized ontological, rationalist and consequentialist layer underneath classical liberal thinking. Sociological positivism is an early social scientific position that claims to use scientific methods of observation, data production and data analysis to identify real causes and effects in the social world.