chapter  13
15 Pages

Brand Orientation

Brand orientation has been examined in relation to contexts, such as non-profit, business-to-business (B2B) sector and tourism that have traditionally been less interested in brands and brand management. The chapter discusses the scales, namely non-profit brand orientation scale, B2B brand orientation scale and destination brand orientation scale. The chapter proposes a non-profit brand orientation scale that can be used by non-profit organizations from any industry to assess the organization's focus on internal and external activities to build and sustain strong brands in the marketplace. The researcher advances a B2B brand orientation scale that companies in this sector can use to assess and improve their brand orientation. By taking into account the factors that determine the success of destination brand management, the researcher develops a destination brand orientation scale that organizations can include in their strategies to improve their performance. Reliability, convergent and discriminant validities of the scale are tested only for reflective factors.