Brand Identity and Brand Image
Brand image consists of the consumer's perception of the brand identity and positioning defined by the company. This chapter discusses five types of brand images for both consumers and companies. The brand image scale developed by M.H. Hsieh aims at measuring a brand image across nations and allows researchers to evaluate if consumers perceive brand similarly in the light of the differences in the cultural and business environments. The scale developed by R.V. Da Silva and S.F. Syed Alwi aims at measuring the corporate brand image in an online environment. D. Coleman, L. de Chernatony and G. Christodoulides suggest a scale enabling researchers to measure the brand identity of a company in a service sector. G. Michel and S. Rieunier examine brand image in relation to non-profit organizations, in the light of the importance that the non-profit world represents nowadays and the characteristics of this sector. F. Guzman and V. Sierra apply the concept of brand image to political candidates.