chapter  2
17 Pages

Brand Associations

This chapter presents three scales on brand associations. Low and Lamb develop a general brand associations scale can be applied to examine any brand. Mann and Ghuman extend the brand associations framework to corporate brands and elaborate a scale to assess corporate brand associations defined as the set of associations that a person hold in minds toward a company. The reliability of the corporate brand associations scale is tested for the three sectors using coefficient alpha, composite reliability (CR), and average variance extracted (AVE). Managers can use the scale to track the corporate brand associations over time and identify strengths and weaknesses toward competitors considering the various dimensions. Building on Ross, James and Vargas, a dissertation could focus on their scale about team brand associations in professional sports. International managers should have a clear identification of brand associations across countries and also a clear understanding of their meanings, which can vary due to cultural issues.