Auditory and phonological aspects of spelling
Accurate assessment of students' spelling provides the detailed information to guide teachers in their planning of lessons at group and individual levels. Classroom assessment commonly involves a suitable combination of measures-for example, observing students as they write, inspecting completed written assignments, formal and informal testing, and discussion with individual students to discover more about the strategies they use and their degree of confidence when spelling. Habitual errors are obviously more important to locate than chance errors, because they are often very difficult to remedy. The child becomes aware of within-word letter strings and syllable junctures, and is better able to use memory for word images to check what has been written. Independent spellers are good at self-monitoring and make flexible use of a wide range of spelling, proofreading, and self-correcting strategies. Diagnostic assessment usually involves careful inspection of the errors a student with learning difficulties makes in daily writing and under test conditions.