Cognitive and metacognitive aspects of spelling
Standardized spelling tests are useful for gaining a general impression of the spread of spelling achievement across a whole class or age cohort, but they are fairly limited as sources of diagnostic information. Standardized tests may take the form of a graded word list that is dictated by the tester while students write their responses. Standardized tests are often used by teachers at the beginning and end of each school year as one method of assessing students' progress objectively. Educational psychologists and support teachers often still use such tests as part of their overall evaluation of a student with learning difficulties. In recent years, in the name of accountability, there has been an increase in the use of national surveys of students' literacy skills. National surveys of literacy are also criticized for allowing the creation of 'league tables', showing the relative standing of different schools.