This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book discusses there is no clear break between neoclassical economics up to the 1970s and the contemporary mainstream economic approaches, including, inter alia, new institutional economics, new information economics, social choice theory, behavioral economics, evolutionary game theory, and experimental economics. It discusses various late neoclassical debates on the nature of the human motivations are surveyed. Since the 1950s, neoclassical economics has evolved into a complex and diverse discursive social formation. The history of neoclassical tradition is not only a gradual accumulation of problems, contradictions, controversies, and disagreements pertaining to its foundational presuppositions, but also a series of elaborations on and reformulations of these foundational presuppositions of the neoclassical problematic. While the post-Althusserian anti-humanist tendencies within the Marxian tradition have produced rather acute critiques of neoclassical, Keynesian, and radical variants of humanism that circulate within the field of economics.