chapter  7
Implications, Future Research Questions, and Conclusion
Pages 11

For the past few decades, global governance has become a key issue in the practices and study of international relations (IR). In particular, the studies of global environmental governance have explored possible ways to manage collective action problems over global commons such as ocean, atmosphere, and climate change. 1 IR scholars have identifi ed nation states, international organizations (such as the United Nations and its suborganizations), private businesses, expert groups, and civil society and its nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as key actors in global environmental governance. 2 However, even the study of governance without government 3 has not systemically examined the role of subnational governments in global governance. “Government” in governance without government studies is mostly national (or central) government. In addition, local governments have not been regarded as actors participating in governance structure because it is a part of subunit of central government, particularly in IR. Yet, subnational governments are actively engaging in global common issues, particularly global climate change.