How do global forces infl uence local politics and policies? Conversely, what impact do local politics and policies have on global politics? Until the statecentric international system was formed under the Westphalian system, cities or city-states had been regarded as among the primary actors dominating international interactions. For a variety of reasons, mainly related to taxation, resource mobilization, and the prevention of local revolts, cities and local authorities have been under the strict control of national governments. Since the Westphalian system was established, cities and local governments have been regarded mainly as sub national entities that provide public services, such as collecting garbage.