chapter  5
Constitutive figures: metaphorical argumentation, environmental irony, associative argumentation
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In this chapter we examine the ways in which certain figures of argu­ ment can be used to strengthen and enrich environmental discussions. We focus on three particular figures: metaphorical argumentation, environmental irony, and associative argumentation. And we term these “constitutive” figures because they are creative in use, they gen­ erate word pictures, atmospheres, linkages, and they constitute par­ ticular shapes of argument.