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INTRODUCTION

The problem of the One and the Many, of Being and Becoming, of Rest and Motion became the centre of the discussion, which was now carried on by the Eleatics and Heraclitus. The Eleactic school of philosophy was an offshoot of Ionia in Southern Italy. Xenophanes of Colophon left his native country at the age of about twenty-five when it came under Persian domination. He is perhaps the only Ionic philosopher who was noble birth; he had indeed to endure the mockery of king Hiero at his poverty, since he earned his living as a rhapsodist. Xenophanes had found the essence of the world in the Deity; in the same way Heraclitus saw it in a spiritual principle the Logos. Heraclitus was born in Ephesus, which after the destruction of Miletus by the Persians was the most powerful city of Asia Minor and contained a world-famous shrine of Artemis, a monumental symbol of the fusion of Oriental and Greek culture.