The effect of pre-season training on the physiological characteristics of international rugby players
This chapter explains the early degenerative radiographic shadows of the neck of middle-aged soccer players and to analyze the stress distribution in heading using a Finite Element Method (FEM), and to discuss the cause of the degenerative findings. Sight radiographic degenerative changes are not regarded as important and have no correlation with symptoms cervical spondylosis proceeds naturally with the ageing process. The radiographic examination included: anterior-posterior view, lateral view of neutral, flexion and extension positions, and oblique views. In FEM analysis, a three-dimensional model was prepared from the radiogram of the lateral cervial spine which was taken at the position in which a ball hit the forehead in heading. In von Mise's stress distribution in three dimensional FEM analyses, the stress in heading was exhibited mainly in the lower part of the cervical spine. In conclusion, early degenerative changes observed to be the result of acute or chronic trauma in conjunction with spondylosis of senescent degeneration.