Nira Yuval-Davis, 'Gender and Nation' (1993)
The exclusion of women is of particular importance for this article. The whole social philosophy which was at the base of the rise of the notion of state citizenship was constructed in terms of the ‘Rights of Man’, a social contract based on the ‘fraternity of men’ (as one of the slogans of the French revolu tion states - and not incidentally) (Carol Pateman 1988). Women were not simply late comers to citizenship rights, as in Marshall’s evolutionary model of the development of citizenship rights. Their exclusion was part and parcel of the construction of the entitlement of men to democratic participation which conferred citizen status not upon individuals as such, but upon men in their capacity as members and representatives of a family (i.e., a group of non-citizens)’ (Vogel 1989, p. 2).