Classes, Hegemony, and Portuguese Democratization
On April 25, 1974, a military coup d’etat ended Europe’s oldest dictator ship, the Portuguese Estado Novo. Popular mobilization followed. Rather than a mere change in regime, the coup d’etat ushered in the “Revolution of Carnations.” The ensuing social upheaval substantially transformed the Portuguese social structure. Southern agricultural workers occupied the large landed estates and thereby eliminated the economically and politically pow erful latifundists; urban workers occupied many industries; and eventually the nationalization of the banks and major industries dismantled the “mo nopolistic groups” that had controlled finance, basic industries, and a large share of Portuguese social capital.