Cross-Domain Analyses of Change Over Time: Combining Growth Modeling and Covariance Structure Analysis
Empirical researchers often inquire about systematic interindividual differ ences in change (i.e., whether individual change over time differs from person to person in systematic and interesting ways). Typically, such questions are concemed with the relationship betvveen change in a single continuous outcome-mathematics achievement, say-and selected exogenous time-invariant predictors of that change, such as measures of a student’s background, environment, and treatment. Examples include the follovving: Does the rate at vvhich students learn mathematics differ by attributes of the academic programs in vvhich they are enrolled? Are longitudinal changes in mathematics related to the student’s health status, gender, and home background?