Turfgrass machinery and equipment operation
Lawn bowls, croquet and tennis evolved in Europe to become important games in those countries where they are now played. The construction philosophy of golf greens has generally been adopted for bowling greens and croquet lawns. The profile of bowling greens and croquet lawns could reasonably be argued to be identical because of similar playing requirements. The establishment phase of lawn bowling greens and grassed tennis courts demands attention to detail to achieve the stringent surface requirements. The playing surface requirements for lawn bowls, croquet lawns and tennis courts differ. The emphasis placed on the three primary cultural practices in sportsturf maintenance, mowing, fertilisation and irrigation differs between lawn bowls, croquet and tennis. Detrimental effects of low mowing as listed by are more pronounced on lawn bowling greens and lawn tennis courts compared to croquet lawns. Numerous pests throughout the world affect the aesthetic uniformity and playing surface quality of lawn bowling greens, croquet courts and lawn tennis courts.